A diciassette anni ottenne l'ammissione all'Istituto di Studi Superiori di Firenze. Nell'ateneo fiorentino ebbe come maestro, fra gli altri, Pasquale Villari, docente di Storia Medioevale e Moderna, dal quale apprese un insegnamento fondamentale, che avrebbe serbato per tutta la vita: la concezione della Storia intesa come scrupolosa ricerca del vero, strettamente congiunta all'impegno civile.
Nell'ultimo decennio dell', l'epoca che vide i tentativi autoritari di Crispi e Pelloux, i processi sommari a carico dei "sovversivi" socialisti, la brutale repressione delle agitazioni operaie e contadine, era una scelta davvero coraggiosa. Nel terremoto del , che rase al suolo Messina, perse la moglie, i cinque figli ed una sorella. Fu la grande tragedia della vita personale di Gaetano Salvemini. Dalle pagine innovatrici del periodico "La Voce", si oppose fieramente alla dispendiosa campagna di Libia La questione della Libia fu uno dei motivi che lo indussero a lasciare il PSI, giudicato troppo acquiescente nei confronti della politica coloniale giolittiana ed incapace di un serio impegno sulla questione meridionale.
Nel grande travaglio che precedette l'entrata dell'Italia nella Grande Guerra maggio , Salvemini fu tra i fautori dell'intervento contro l'Austria e l'imperialismo tedesco.
La sua coerenza morale gli impose di arruolarsi volontario sin dal primo anno di guerra. Purtroppo, gli eventi successivi all'armistizio novembre delusero le speranze degli idealisti. Ma era una lotta estremamente difficile, sia per il progressivo sfaldamento della Sinistra decisiva la scissione comunista nel Congresso di Livorno del gennaio , sia per l'esplosione di un nazionalismo esasperato che si nutriva del mito della "vittoria mutilata". His tomb is flanked by marble fasces , and a large idealized marble bust of him is above the tomb.
Mussolini was first married to Ida Dalser in Trento in The couple had a son one year later and named him Benito Albino Mussolini. In December , Mussolini married Rachele Guidi , his mistress since , and with his following political ascendency the information about his first marriage was suppressed and both his first wife and son were later persecuted.
Mussolini had several mistresses, among them Margherita Sarfatti and his final companion, Clara Petacci. Mussolini had many brief sexual encounters with female supporters, as reported by his biographer Nicholas Farrell.
Mussolini was raised by a devoutly Catholic mother  and an anti-clerical father. His father never attended. Mussolini would become anti-clerical like his father. As a young man, he "proclaimed himself to be an atheist and several times tried to shock an audience by calling on God to strike him dead. He believed that science had proven there was no God, and that the historical Jesus was ignorant and mad.
He considered religion a disease of the psyche, and accused Christianity of promoting resignation and cowardice. Mussolini was an admirer of Friedrich Nietzsche. According to Denis Mack Smith , "In Nietzsche he found justification for his crusade against the Christian virtues of humility, resignation, charity, and goodness.
Mussolini made vitriolic attacks against Christianity and the Catholic Church, which he accompanied with provocative and blasphemous remarks about the consecrated host, and about a love affair between Christ and Mary Magdalene. He denounced the Catholic Church for "its authoritarianism and refusal to allow freedom of thought Despite making such attacks, Mussolini tried to win popular support by appeasing the Catholic majority in Italy. In , Mussolini saw that three of his children were given communion. In , he had a priest perform a religious marriage ceremony for himself and his wife Rachele, whom he had married in a civil ceremony 10 years earlier.
After this conciliation, he claimed the Church was subordinate to the State, and "referred to Catholicism as, in origin, a minor sect that had spread beyond Palestine only because grafted onto the organization of the Roman empire. Mussolini publicly reconciled with the Pope Pius XI in , but "took care to exclude from the newspapers any photography of himself kneeling or showing deference to the Pope.
In Mussolini began reasserting his anti-clericalism. He would sometimes refer to himself as an "outright disbeliever," and once told his cabinet that "Islam was perhaps a more effective religion than Christianity" and that the "papacy was a malignant tumor in the body of Italy and must 'be rooted out once and for all', because there was no room in Rome for both the Pope and himself. After his fall from power in , Mussolini began speaking "more about God and the obligations of conscience", although "he still had little use for the priests and sacraments of the Church,".
A third son, Bruno, was killed in an air accident while flying a P bomber on a test mission, on 7 August Mussolini's granddaughter Alessandra Mussolini was a member of the European Parliament for the far right party Alternativa Sociale and currently serves in the Chamber of Deputies as a member of the ruling People of Freedom. Mussolini's National Fascist Party was banned in the postwar Constitution of Italy , but a number of successor neo-fascist parties emerged to carry on its legacy.
Historically, the strongest neo-fascist party was the Italian Social Movement Movimento Sociale Italiano , which was declared dissolved in and replaced by the National Alliance , which distanced itself from Fascism its leader Gianfranco Fini once declared that Fascism was "an absolute evil".
American wartime comic advertising the government sale of low-return War Bonds by showing Mussolini, Hitler and Hirohito beaten by superheroes. More serious biographical depictions include a look at the last few days of Mussolini's life in Carlo Lizzani 's movie Mussolini: Ultimo atto Mussolini: The last act , starring Rod Steiger and George C. Scott 's portrayal in the television mini-series Mussolini: The Untold Story. Actor Antonio Banderas also played the title role in Benito in , which covered his life from his school teacher days to the beginning of World War I, before his rise as dictator.
Mussolini is also depicted in the films Tea with Mussolini , Lion of the Desert also with Steiger and the award-winning Italian film Vincere. This strip, which ran from to , featured Mussolini as an arrogant buffoon. Sign In Don't have an account? Main articles: Fascism and Italian Fascism. Further information: March on Rome. Further information: Economy of Italy under Fascism. Main article: Italian Fascism.
Benito Mussolini (Biografie storiche) (Italian Edition) - Kindle edition by Clovis Andersen. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. pymybapifysy.tk: Benito Mussolini: Biografie Storiche (Audible Audio Edition): Clovis pymybapifysy.tk Release Date: November 16, ; Language: Italian, Italian.
Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Main articles: Munich Agreement and Italian invasion of Albania. See also: Italian participation in the Eastern Front. Main article: 25 Luglio. Dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio. Italian radio statement announcing the dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio, 25 July Main article: Italian Social Republic. New York: Oxford University Press. Edition of Retrieved 17 October Il Rivoluzionario 1 ed.
Torino: Einaudi. Benito Mussolini. Compass Point Books. Marsch auf Rom im Nadelstreif. Sarfatti, p. Nine Etched in Life. Ayer Company Publishers, original , Delzel, Harper Rowe , page 6. Modern Italy; A Political History. The Times. Archived from the original on Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 14 October The Doctrine of Fascism. Lit Gloss, University of Buffalo. Section I. Retrieved 21 March Western Political Thought.
Atlantic Publishers and Distributors P Ltd, New York. Digital object identifier: Mussolini and Italian Fascism. Nelson Thornes. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 March The Anatomy of Fascism. New York City: Alfred A. Retrieved 24 June The University of Chicago Press. Blood Shed in Riots throughout Italy".
The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 6 November As I walked with him in the gardens of the Villa Borghese , I could easily compare his profile with that of the Roman busts, and I realised he was one of the Caesars. There's no doubt at all that Mussolini is the heir of the great men of that period. April Retrieved 23 March Racial Theories in Fascist Italy.
Hitler's ten-year war on the Jews. Kessinger Publishing. Oxford University Press, Italian Fascism and the Jews. University of California. The American Council for Judaism. Fascist Italy and the Middle East, — Palgrave Macmillan. Italian Foreign Policy — Cambridge University Press. Casemate Publishers. Fascist Italy. Manchester University Press. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Hitler's Raid to Save Mussolini. Da Capo Press. Taylor Trade. It reads "In addition to my Adolf Hitler". The Last Days Random House, p.
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L'Alleato, — Dalla "guerra breve" alla guerra lunga 1 ed. Golomb, Jacob; Wistrich, Robert S. Nietzsche, godfather of fascism? Farrell, Nicholas. Mussolini: A New Life. Garibaldi, Luciano.
The Last Days Random House, p. Victor Emmanuel III. Bloemendal, C. This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight, and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities. He would later form the OVRA , an institutionalized secret police that carried official state support. The Manifesto, which was closely modeled on the Nazi Nuremberg laws ,  stripped Jews of their Italian citizenship and with it any position in the government or professions.
The Secrets of his Death. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism. Hibbert, Christopher. Haugen, Brenda Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Compass Point Books. Kallis, Aristotle. Fascist Ideology. London: Routledge. Kroener, Bernhard R. Lowe, Norman. Italy, — the first appearance of fascism. In Mastering Modern World History. Morris, Terry; Murphy, Derrick. Europe — Moseley, Ray. Dallas: Taylor Trade Publishing. Mussolini, Rachele. Mussolini: An Intimate Biography. Pocket Books. Oxford: Berg Publishers. Painter, Jr. Mussolini's Rome: rebuilding the Eternal City.
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French historian Anne-Marie Matard-Bonucci reminds us that such a museum will not be about putting the past on trial and delivering judgments but about sharing knowledge in the social arena. The understanding of important and recent historiography debates and the capacity to deliver this knowledge using objects and digital technologies are essential preconditions for any museum. One should transpose the qualitative content of academic debates into visual forms of narrative. This passage from a written academic representation of history to multi-media storytelling in interactive spaces is undoubtedly a complex endeavor when looking at violent pasts.
This is now the next step. Many historians commented and argued in favor of or against the museum in a lively debate that was later added as a complement to the post itself. Accessed September 12, Mario Isnenghi Roma-Bari: Laterza, , See also Luisa Passerini, Mussolini immaginario: storia di una biografia Roma: Laterza, The problem is cultural. Prohibiting would be pointless. Many teachers also contact the Town Hall for information, material and lessons about fascism.
Our town has an important role as far as history, culture and tourism are concerned. We are not as others would like us to be. Predappio is of crucial importance for the understanding of the past, of history and of Europe […].
Situazione museologica e Memoria in Italia.